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The Future of Biogas: Policy Implications and Opportunities

growth, driven by evolving policies and legislation

The biogas sector is at the cusp of a significant transformation, driven by changing policies and legislation that aim to promote renewable energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and create a more sustainable energy landscape. Anaerobic digesters, which play a crucial role in the production of biogas, are poised to benefit from these changes. This article will explore the current policies and legislation shaping the biogas sector and how anaerobic digester owners and operators can leverage these policies to their advantage.

The Biogas Revolution

Biogas is a renewable energy source produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic materials, such as agricultural waste, food scraps, and sewage sludge. The anaerobic digestion process converts these materials into biogas, primarily composed of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be used for various applications, including electricity generation, heat production, and as a vehicle fuel. It is a versatile and sustainable energy source that can help mitigate climate change and reduce dependence on fossil fuels.

Policy Drivers for the Biogas Sector

Several factors are driving the growth of the biogas sector, and these are reflected in recent policy developments:

  • Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS): Many countries and regions have established RPS, which require utilities to obtain a certain percentage of their energy from renewable sources. Biogas, being a renewable energy source, qualifies for RPS compliance, which drives demand for its production.


  • Net Zero Targets: Governments and organizations worldwide are setting ambitious goals to achieve net-zero emissions by mid-century. Biogas, as a carbon-neutral energy source, is gaining favor as a way to reduce emissions in various sectors, including agriculture and transportation.


  • Waste Management Regulations: Stricter waste management regulations are encouraging the diversion of organic waste from landfills and incineration. This provides a reliable feedstock source for anaerobic digesters, reducing disposal costs for waste producers.


  • Financial Incentives: Governments often offer financial incentives, such as tax credits, grants, and subsidies, to promote the development of biogas projects. These incentives can significantly reduce the financial barriers associated with digester installation and operation.


  • Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) Markets: RNG, which is biogas that has been upgraded to a quality suitable for injection into natural gas pipelines, is gaining traction. These markets offer new revenue streams for biogas producers by selling RNG to utilities, industrial facilities, and transportation companies.

The policies and legislative acts mentioned are indeed instrumental in propelling the Renewable Natural Gas (RNG) industry forward. Let’s delve deeper into each of these policies and their impact:

  • Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): The RFS, established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is a key driver for RNG production. It mandates the blending of biofuels, including RNG, into transportation fuels. This creates a reliable and growing market for RNG producers, as it ensures a consistent demand for their product. The financial incentives for anaerobic digester operators who produce RNG further encourage investment in RNG production, making it a lucrative option for waste management and agricultural operations.


  • Federal Investment Tax Credit (ITC): The extension of the ITC to include biogas and RNG facilities is a significant financial incentive. Offering a 30% tax credit for qualified projects reduces the financial burden on operators, making RNG projects more economically viable. This tax credit helps attract investment into anaerobic digestion systems and RNG production, which is crucial for expanding the industry and increasing RNG supply.


  • Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS): Several states, including California and Oregon, have implemented the LCFS to encourage the use of low-carbon transportation fuels. RNG, as a carbon-negative fuel, qualifies for credits in these programs. This not only provides additional income to anaerobic digester operators but also supports efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector. This policy not only drives the RNG industry forward but also aligns with broader sustainability and environmental goals.


  • Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act: The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act represents a major milestone for the RNG industry. With substantial funding allocated for infrastructure enhancement, including investments in RNG production and distribution, anaerobic digester operators have a unique opportunity to expand their operations and access new markets. This investment supports the scaling up of RNG production, which is crucial for meeting the increasing demand for clean, renewable energy sources.


  • Renewable Energy Credits (RECs): Many states offer RECs to support renewable energy generation, including RNG projects. These credits can be sold to utilities and other entities to offset their renewable energy obligations. For anaerobic digester operators, RECs represent an additional revenue stream that can significantly enhance the financial viability of RNG projects. It also encourages the continued growth of RNG as a renewable energy source.

These policies and legislative acts collectively serve to create a conducive environment for the RNG industry to thrive. They provide financial incentives, demand certainty, and access to new markets, making RNG an attractive option for investors, waste management facilities, and agricultural operations. Moreover, they contribute to broader sustainability and environmental goals by promoting the use of carbon-negative fuels and supporting the development of clean energy infrastructure

Opportunities for Anaerobic Digester Owners

Anaerobic digestion owners and operators can capitalize on enacted policies and legislative measures by adopting various strategies to maximize their revenue and sustainability. Here’s an expansion on these strategies:

  • Diversify Revenue Streams: Beyond traditional biogas utilization for electricity and heat, consider upgrading biogas to RNG and tapping into growing RNG markets. RNG is in high demand due to its environmental benefits and can command a premium price. Diversifying your revenue streams through RNG production can significantly increase your income and market opportunities. To achieve this, operators can invest in gas purification and upgrading equipment, enabling the injection of RNG into natural gas pipelines or the production of compressed or liquefied RNG for use in transportation.


  • Build Partnerships: Collaborate with local utilities, industries, and municipalities to establish long-term off-take agreements for biogas or RNG. These partnerships provide stability and financial support for digester operations. By entering into agreements with these entities, operators can secure a guaranteed market for their biogas or RNG, which can be crucial for project financing and long-term sustainability.


  • Stay Informed: Keep abreast of evolving policies and legislation related to the biogas sector. Regularly monitor updates at the federal, state, and local levels to ensure that your operations and investments align with changing requirements and incentives. Being well-informed allows you to adapt your business strategy to take advantage of emerging opportunities and stay in compliance with evolving regulations.


  • Access Financial Incentives: Explore available financial incentives at the federal, state, and local levels. These incentives can help offset the capital costs of digester installation and operation. Federal Investment Tax Credits (ITC) and state-level programs can provide substantial financial support for anaerobic digestion projects. Understanding and utilizing these incentives can make your project more economically viable.


  • Seek Grant Opportunities: Federal and state governments often provide grants to support RNG projects. Anaerobic digester operators should actively search for available grants and apply to secure additional funding for their projects. These grants can be used for digester upgrades, RNG infrastructure development, and sustainability initiatives, further reducing the financial burden and increasing profitability.


  • Enhance Efficiency: Invest in digester technology improvements and operational efficiencies to increase biogas production and reduce costs. More efficient digesters not only yield higher gas production but also reduce operational expenses. Investing in modern technology, process optimization, and maintenance can make your project more competitive and profitable, ensuring a higher return on investment.


  • Promote Sustainability: Emphasize the environmental benefits of biogas production in your communications. Highlight how your operation contributes to waste reduction, reduced emissions, and the circular economy. Such messaging not only enhances your public image but can also attract environmentally conscious partners and customers, including industries looking to reduce their carbon footprint through the purchase of renewable biogas or RNG.

Anaerobic digestion owners and operators can leverage enacted policies and legislative measures by diversifying their revenue streams, building strategic partnerships, staying informed about policy changes, accessing financial incentives, seeking grants, enhancing operational efficiency, and promoting the sustainability aspects of their operations. These strategies can enhance profitability and ensure the long-term success of anaerobic digestion projects in the evolving energy landscape.

Recent policies and legislation have created a favorable environment for anaerobic digester operators in the biogas and RNG sectors. This industry is poised for significant growth, driven by evolving policies and legislation promoting renewable energy, waste reduction, and emission mitigation. Anaerobic digester owners and operators are well-positioned to benefit from these changes by diversifying revenue streams, building partnerships, and accessing financial incentives. By staying informed and focusing on sustainability, they can be crucial in transitioning to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy future. The future of biogas is bright, and anaerobic digesters are central to this transformative journey.

The future of biogas is bright, and anaerobic digesters are central to this transformative journey.

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